ABSTRACT.

The salient features of the three important Geological units are stated. The extent of the possible oil bearing sedimentary basins in India is indicated. These basins are classified into four types as follows:

  1. Regions elevated and folded due to omgenic movements;

  2. Regions exposed at the surface due to epeirogenic or eustatic movements;

  3. Regions concealed under river alluvia, desert sands or saltpans and

  4. Off shore regions.

The geology, tectonics and the oil potentialities of the proved petroleum provinces of Assam (both in the folded part and the concealed part under the Brahmaputra alluvium) and the recently indicated (yet to be proved) petroleum province of the Cambay region are discussed. The geology and the possible oil potentialities of the Cutch, Rajasthan, East Punjab, Ganga Valley, Bengal Basin, Andaman Islands, more deserving parts of the off shore regions and the coastal areas are discussed in some detail.

RESUME.

Cet article présente les traits marquants des trois importantes subdivisions géologiques de l'Inde et montre l'extension des bassins sédimentaires éventuellement pétrolifères. Ces bassins sont classés en quatre catégories:

  1. régions haussées et plissées par des mouvements orogéniques;

  2. régions affleurant par suite de mouvements épiorogéniques ou eustatiques;

  3. régions recouvertes par des alluvions fluviales, des déserts de sable ou des chotts;

  4. régions de l'intérieur.

On a discuté la géologie tectonique et les possibilités pétrolifères déjà démontrées des provinces de l'Assam et celles, indiquées récemment mais non encore prouvées, de la région de Cambay. Ces mêmes caractéristiques ont été présentées en détail dans le cas du Cutch, du Rajasthan, du Penjab oriental, de la vallée du Gange, du bassin du Bengale, des îles des Andáman et des parties les plus interessantes des régions au large du littoral et des étendues côtiares.

Introduction

Physical Divisions of India The sub-continent of India is divisible into three geographical units. One is a relic of Gondwana land, the ancient landmass of the Southern Hemisphere stretching from Australia to South America through India, Madagascar, South Africa and Antarctica. The Indian relic consists of a triangular peninsula projecting into the Indian ocean and bounded on the east and west by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively. At its northern edge the Peninsula is crescent shaped and is almost parallel to the foothills zone of the Himalayas between Punjab and Assam.

A severed portion of the peninsula constitutes the Assam plateau on the north-east overlooking the Grahmaputra Valley.

Another unit, conveniently referred to as the Extra-Penisular region, comprises the mountainous belt of the Himalayas stretching for a distance of nearly 1,500 miles from Kashmir on the north-west to the gorge of the Brahmaputra in Assam on the north-east.

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