Synopsis

The author briefly reviews the history of turbine fuels from the early conception that almost any liquid fuel would be suitable, to the present day experience that demonstrates the need for a controlled fuel.

Various fuel characteristics are discussed in detail; these are: volatility, fire hazards, low temperature characteristics, storage stability, fuel pump lubrication, combustion characteristics, heats of combustion, and fuel availability and costs. Finally, attention is focused on the advantages of a distillate fuel of the kerosene type showing that the relatively high viscosity and low volatility of such a fuel confers a considerable advantage in relation to the permissible range of turbine powered aircraft.

Résumé

L'auteur passe brièvement en revue l'historique de's combustibles de turbines, depuis la conception primitive que presque tout combustible liquide serait utilisable jusqu'à l'expérience actuelle démontrant le besoin d'un combustible possédant des qualités naturelles déterminées. Plusieurs caractéristiques du combustible sont discutées en détail à savoir: volatilité, risques d'incendie, caractéristiques à basse teinpérature, stabilité au stockage, lubrification des pompes à combustible, caractéristiques de combustion, chaleurs de combustion, disponibilité du combustible et coût. Finalement on attire l'attention sur les avantages d'un combustible distillé du type kérosène, dé- montrant que la viscosité relativement élevée et la volatilité faible d'un tel combustible lui confèrent un avantage considérable en égard au rayon d'action admissible des avions à turbine.

Introduction

The questions most frequently asked about turbine fuels are: What kind of a cocktail will they be? Will turbine fuels have high or low vapor pressure? Will we always have to type test on reciprocating engine * Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Div., East Hartford 8, Conn., U.S.A. fuel? This discussion will review the fuel problems that have been encountered and outline what we want for a turbine fuel.

In the early days of its development, there was a comparatively widespread impression that the gas turbine was not fussy about its diet. Early development had been carried out largely on kerosene, but it was conjectured that in a very short time gas turbines could be operated on almost any liquid fuel.

This early optimism has since given way to a realization of many influences traceable to fuel properties.

The performance of the gas turbine as of any other prime mover is determined by a combination of fuel characteristics and engine design; and, during its evolution, the relative emphasis on fuel characteristics and on engine design may change.

Since, in the present state of the art, combustion in gas turbines is, to a large extent, influenced by mechanical or aerodynamic factors, it would be anticipated that as devel

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