Synopsis

Venezuelan crude oils are predominantly intermediate base but they tend toward naphthenic properties. About 32 per cent of the production is typically naphthene base. The average sulfur content is high but generally lower than the sulfur content of crude oils of similar low gravities.

Straight-run and cracked gasolines exhibit higher octane numbers than United States gasolines, and their susceptibility to tetraethyl lead is superior.

Relatively large amounts of aviation gasoline base stock can be produced from many of the crude oils.

The relatively low pour points of many of the crude oils permit the manufacture of large amounts of jet fuels and diesel fuels and a few of the crude oils contain low pour points lubricating oil stocks.

Kerosenes are generally inferior compared with those from United States crude oils but are considered satisfactory for most world markets. A few crude oils contain exceptionally high viscosity index lubricating oils and large amounts of wax but the bulk of Venezuelan crude oil is unsatisfactory for lubricant manufacture unless solvent treating procesces are employed.

Tia Juana-102 Area Outstanding or unique crude oils are: Low pour lubes Diesel Fuels Cracking stocks Cracking stock Quiriquire Gasoline Guara All stocks superior Chimire All stocks superior Jusepin Most stocks good Nipa Most stocks good Santa Rarbara Most stocks good * Consultant-Head Dept. Pet. Refining, Univ. of Tulsa; ** Chief Director, Oficina Tecnica de Hidrocarburos, *** Head Dept. Fiscalization, Oficina Tecnica de Hidro- Tech. Ed. Oil & Gas Journal, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Ministerio de Fomento, Caracas, Venezuela. carburos, Ministerio de Fomento, Caracas, Venezuela.

Mulata Most stocks good El Roble 56% of Aviation gasolirif: IQuiamare Lube stock-V.I. of 147 San Joaquin Lube stock-V.1. of 145 San Roque Wax distillate-39% wax Yopales (heavy) Gasoline Cracking stock Mara and Pedernales cmde oils contain very large amounts of sulfur. Boscan and the heavier crude oils of the State of Zulia have such low gravities (10-15 API) that they are not usually desirable unless asphalts are desired.

Résumé

Les bruts du Venezuela sont en majeure partie ?i base intermédiaire mais ils manifestent une tendance aux propriétés naphténiques. Près de 32 pour cent de la production est à base typiquement naphténique.

La teneur moyenne en soufre est élevée mais en général inférieure à la teneur en soufre des bruts de poids spécifique aussi faible.

Les essences de distillation directe et de cracking montrent un indice d'octane supérieur à celui des essences des Etats-Unis et leur sensibilité au plomb tétra est plus accusée. D'un grand nombre des bruts on peut tirer des quantités relativement élevées de matière première pour essence aviation. Les points de coulée assez bas de beaucoup de

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