THE ten papers presented in this section cover most phases of the alternative fuel question. However, one of these papers, that by M. Audibert, is rather misplaced and deals with heterogeneous catalysis. It is included here because it could not well be placed in any other section.

The subject of Alternative Fuels grows more and more popular every year, but as this is essentially a Petroleum Congress, the inclusion of a section dealing with such a subject speaks volumes for the extraordinary broadmindedness of the Institution of Petroleum Technologists, of whose members by far the greater number are concerned with petroleum production and marketing.

Benzole.-Of the papers to be considered, one, that by Mr. W. H. Coleman, deals with Motor Benzole, the only liquid fuel of coal origin which has been definitely established in this country. The sales of this material amounted to 27–5 million gallons in 1932, a quantity equivalent to 2–5% of the country's total consumption of motor spirit. Mr. Coleman describes the properties of benzole and benzole-petrol blends in some detail and lays stress upon those propertie§ in which such fuels possess advantages over normal petroleum spirits.

Shale Oil.-Next to benzole in importance from the alternative fuel standpoint in this country is Scottish shale oil, concerning which we have, unfortunately, no paper for consideration. There are, however, a few points in connection with this important supply of home. produced oil which are worthy of attention. The reserves of oil shale in Scotland have been estimated at approximately 600 million tons, of which about 25% would be lost in working operations. In 1924 the quantity of shale mined amounted to rather more than 21 million tons, the average yield of oil being 25 gallons per ton of shale. In 1930, 2 million tons of shale were mined and the oil production was approximately 160,000 tons. It is also noteworthy that oil was being produced, from shale and soft coal in Scotland, by James Young, before the first petroleum well was discovered, and that the methods developed in Scotland for the refining of shale oil were adopted by American petroleum refiners. The Diesel oils from Scottish shale oil are of excellent quality for high-speed Diesel engines.

Low-Temperature Carbonisation of Coal.-In a paper on low-temperature carbonisation Dr. J. E. King gives us a complete résumé of the present position as it exists in this country and points out the advances recently made. In 1932 about 220,000 tons of coal were carbonised in Great /Britain by processes of low-temperature carbonisation, ~ and yielded approximately 4 million gallons of crude oil and 1 million gallons of crude motor spirit. These figures indicate that the amount of the coal carbonised recovered in the

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