Objectives/Scope: Various completion schemes were tested as part of the Hydraulic Fracture Test Site-2 (HFTS-2) project. The wells were instrumented with permanent fiber optic (FO) cable, and unique near-wellbore and far-field region surveys were acquired to evaluate spatial and temporal hydraulic fracture characteristics. The state-of-the-art diagnostics included substantial monitoring of both the well stimulation and longer-term production performance. The objective was to evaluate and improve stimulation distribution effectiveness (SDE) for different completion designs based on the diagnostics results.
Methods/Procedures/Processes: A hydraulic fracturing (HF) profile (i.e., proppant/fluid allocation among clusters) was obtained using near-wellbore Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) data acquired during stimulation. Statistical analysis provided a quantitative assessment of SDE for the different completion designs. A novel workflow was developed to assess time-lapse fracture property changes at the cluster and stage levels based on Distributed Strain Sensing (DSS) data acquired during the production phase. These time-lapse fracture property changes were compared with the HF profile.
Results/Observations/Conclusions: Based on the statistical analysis, Rate Per Cluster (RPC) during proppant slurry placement appears to be a primary completion design variable, rather than the typical Rate Per Perf (RPP). If RPC was not maintained at a certain level, the likelihood of uneven distribution increased dramatically. The stage configurations that created low RPC while maintaining high RPP did not show improved SDE. The strain change results based on DSS data during the production phase indicated near-wellbore fracture property changes (e.g., aperture changes during well shut-in and flow periods) and aligned well with near-wellbore DAS signals acquired during stimulation. More importantly, fracture property changes based on DSS data acquired during two tests over a 7-month period show high consistency and good alignment with the near-wellbore HF profile.
Applications/Significance/Novelty: This workflow quantitatively evaluates SDE for different completion designs using diagnostic results and could help optimize completion strategy for future development projects. The analysis and interpretation of results demonstrate the technical feasibility of using permanent fiber optic cable for stimulation and production monitoring and indicate a strong correlation between proppant/fluid allocation and time-lapse near-wellbore fracture property changes.