Concerns about the volume of water used in hydraulic fracturing, and its disposal, have reignited discussion about the use of energized fluids, including foams, nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, we discuss arguments for the use of these fluids beyond the under-pressured, dry gas reservoirs where they are already favored, using a model developed at the University of Texas at Austin. The simulation study uses reservoir conditions based on available information for the Utica, which was chosen because it is a liquid-rich shale of current interest.

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