The most challenging property of heavy oil is its viscosity which reduce mobility and also places restriction on utilization. Thus, higher cost of generating steam for recovery, high pressure drop, cost and compatibility of diluent for pipeline transport, the need to upgrade for subsequent usage and/or environmental concerns, have hindered commercial development in many places in the world. In addition, the need for improvement on transportation technology remains a vital component of its commercialization and/or market competitiveness as long as production continues to increase. Emulsification of oil droplets as a dispersed phase in continuous water phase (O/W emulsion) is desirable in the aspect of heavy oil pipeline transportation. In the recent time, ionic liquid (ILs) as a green chemical has received increased research attention due to its desirable properties. While several investigations have studied the use of surfactant as a stabilizer in heavy oil-in-water emulsification system, the use of ILs has rarely been considered. However, some recent works have reported satisfactory results in the use of ILs in EOR and asphaltene content reduction. Ultimately, this article have discussed emulsification of heavy oil in water, using ionic liquid, with the aim of improving pipeline transportability and post-transport utilization. It is believed that success achieved in EOR in terms of application of ILs as surface active agent in chemical flood/emulsification and reduction of viscosity (asphaltene reduction) could also be achieved in the aspect of emulsion transportation.

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