Laboratory and field data have been obtained to demonstrate that lithology, free ice content, trapped gas, and bottom of permafrost can be detected and often qualitatively determined with logs. The most important factor affecting the quality and reliability of field data is hole condition; i.e., is the hole in gauge with minimum melting. Laboratory data on the electric and acoustic response of frozen soils have shown the significant variables affecting these parameters are salinity, surface area of the soils, and temperature. The laboratory data are used as a guide to interpret the log response.

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