Steam injection produces subsurface volume expansion due to increasing temperature and pressure within the injection interval. These subsurface deformations induce measurable surface displacements, including vertical and horizontal movements and tilt. Measurements and analysis of induced surface displacements often provide a cost effective method to monitor the extent and orientation of injected fluid migration patterns over large areas and to monitor subsurface zones of recompaction that may contribute to increased oil production during cyclic steam operations. This paper describes field measurement and numerical analysis techniques used to monitor steam injection processes and describes two case studies demonstrating the practical application of this technology.

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