As potential CO2 geological storage site in CCS, utilization of depleted oil/gas reservoirs and aquifer has been proposed. The long-term aim of this research is to establish a biotechnological system to microbiologically convert geologically stored CO2 into methane.
Our recent study revealed that methanogen and exoelectrogen inhabiting subsurface reservoir are involved in the recently discovered bioelectrochemical reaction called electromethanogenesis (CO2 + 8H++ 8e− → CH4 + 2H2O). In this reaction, methanogen receives proton from reservoir brine and electron from a solid electrode. As a result, reduces CO2 into methane. Required electricity for the methane conversion can be obtained from renewable energy sources such as wind or photovoltaic power generations. Single-chambered electromethanogenic reactors were used for an evaluation. The reactors were inoculated with reservoir brine anaerobically collected from Yabase oil field in Japan. Each reactor headspace was filled with mixed gases of N2/CO2 (80/20). The reactors were incubated at 55°C with an applied voltage of 0.75 V. The reactors produced methane at a rate of 386mmol/day m−2. The current-methane conversion efficiency was almost 100%. On the other hand, no significant methane production was detected in the reactors without applied voltage.
To investigate the mechanism of electromethanogenic reaction, the phylogenetic diversity of the microbes on the cathode was analyzed.
The result shows, as for archaea, methanogen closely related to Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus dominated. On the other hand, as for bacteria, Thermincola ferriacetica, one of the exoelectrogen, was the dominant spices.
Our experimental research demonstrated for the first time that the possibility of bioelectrochemical methane conversion of carbon dioxide by utilizing microbes indigenous to depleted oil fields.
The final goal of this research is to establish the "Subsurface Methane Regeneration" system, combining CCS and biotechnology, in which geologically-stored CO2 is converted into CH4 by bio-electrochemical process called "Electromethanogenesis".