Black oil tables used in reservoir simulation and/or RTA/PTA history matching exercises are generated based on a fixed surface process (number of separator stages, psep, Tsep). However, even though the number of separator stages remain fixed, the separator pressure and temperature vary over time. This variation of separator conditions over time leads to an inconsistency between the rates used in history matching (assumes constant separator conditions) and the actual measured rates (changing separator conditions in the field).

This paper provides a method to adjust all measured rates to a fixed surface process to ensure consistency between the black oil tables and rates used in history matching, and it also investigates for what fluid systems this normalization procedure is important. First, daily wellstream compositions are predicted based on a common equation of state (EOS) model, welltest and production data (separator oil and gas compositions, GOR, stock tank liquid API). Thereafter, these wellstreams are run through a fixed surface process, with the same separator pressure and temperature used to generate the black oil tables utilized in the reservoir modeling.

Several practical observations are made. CGR normalization is in general not important for black- and volatile oil systems. However, it may be very important for near-critical fluids and gas condensate systems.The obvious application of the proposed normalization scheme is to calculate a set of consistent oil and gas rates for every well that can be used for history-matching purposes. Additionally, as black oil PVT properties are a function of the separator process, it is recommended to define a common surface process for an entire field or basin to ensure consistent apple-to-apple comparison between wells.

Technical contributions include a qualitative framework of when CGR normalization is important and when it is not. The paper also proposes a simple solution to a widely known, but under-addressed and overlooked problem, not earlier presented in the open literature.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.