A semi-analytical formulation of the spontaneous capillary imbibition is used to analyze the liquid intake of six shale samples, linking imbibition capacity and rate to lab-scale measurements. Moreover, a data-driven approach is utilized to examine the effect of mineralogy and porosity on the macroscale wettability of shales. According to the results, the presence of connected organic sub-layers lowers the destructive impacts of spontaneous water imbibition on hydrocarbon permeability. Furthermore, the intrinsic permeability, tortuosity, wettability, and initial and residual saturations are among the most influential factors influencing the water uptake during shut-in periods after hydraulic fracturing operations.

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