Induced seismicity resulting from fluid injection is a growing concern with a number of operations, including hydraulic fracturing. The vast majority of hydraulic stimulations results in no felt seismicity. However, three examples of larger, anomalous seismicity have been attributed to hydraulic fracturing, which seem to be associated with operations in unique geologic and geomechanical settings. In response, a number of operational protocols have been developed and include specific requirements for seismic monitoring. Seismological aspects are obviously central to these protocols, including characterizing the seismic source strength and associated seismic hazard. The typical microseismicity recorded during hydraulic fracturing represents a small portion of the hydraulic energy associated with the injection. However, the energy balance of the relative amount of seismic energy increases in the cases of anomalous seismicity, which may provide a monitoring tool to potentially help mitigate induced seismicity. Although the number of cases with anomalous seismicity is relatively small, other examples have been observed from geothermal stimulations. In these cases, the ratio of seismic energy is relatively larger but of potentially interest remains significantly less than the hydraulic energy. Furthermore, the ratio of seismic moment to injected volume also increases but typically remains less than a limit suggested by McGarr (1976). Potentially the energy and volume balances could be useful monitoring tools to assist in ongoing operation decision processes.

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