With the current focus on liquids-rich shale plays (LRS) in North America and the importance of gas condensate reservoirs globally, there is an increased need to develop reservoir engineering methods to analyze such reservoirs. Commercialization of LRS plays is now possible due to new technology, such as multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW). Efficient production from such reservoirs necessitates understanding of flow mechanisms, reservoir properties and the controlling rock and fluid parameters. Production-decline analysis is a robust technique for analysis of production data and obtaining estimates of recoverable reserves. Nevertheless, these techniques, developed for conventional reservoirs, are not appropriate for ultra-low permeability reservoirs. There are substantial differences in reservoir performance characteristics between conventional and ultra-low permeability reservoirs. LRS reservoirs produce much leaner wellstreams compared to conventional reservoirs due to very low permeabilities that result in very large drawdowns. Methods for analysis of two-phase flow in conventional reservoirs, with underlying simplifying assumptions, are no longer applicable.

This paper discusses production data analysis of constant flowing bottomhole pressure (FBHP) wells producing from LRS (gas condensate) reservoirs. A theoretical basis is developed for a gas condensate reservoir during the transient linear flow (drawdown) period. The governing flow equation is linearized using appropriately defined two-phase pseudopressure and pseudotime functions so that solutions valid for liquids can be applied. The derived backward model is employed to compute the linear flow parameter, xf√k.

Simulation results show that the liquid yield will be approximately constant for LRS wells during the transient linear flow, from the early days of initial testing, if flowing BHP is almost constant. An analytical formulation is used to prove this finding for 1D transient linear flow of LRS wells.

The proposed production data analysis (PDA) method is illustrated using simulated production data for different fluid models and relative permeability curves. Fine-grid compositional and black oil numerical models are used to this purpose.

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