Abstract

Recently, the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) has emerged as an effective tool for performing continuous updating of petroleum reservoir simulation models. The method is firmly grounded on the theory of Kalman filters and sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The ability of the method to sequentially update the spatial properties in petroleum reservoir models, such as permeability and porosity, by integrating the dynamic production data makes it a very attractive approach. Moreover, the method takes into account the production uncertainty in the reservoir models by using error covariance matrices for the measurement vector (Production and injection rates, Gas-Oil ratio, Steam-Oil ratio, etc.) and the state vector (pressure, saturation, permeability, porosity). Similar to the traditional Kalman filter, the covariance matrices have to be tuned to reflect the uncertainty in the model and the measurements. We consider two unconventional oil reservoir models: 1) highly heterogeneous black-oil reservoir model, and 2) heterogeneous SAGD reservoir model. The results will demonstrate the advantage of using the localized EnKF for effective history matching using ensemble sizes relatively lower than what otherwise would be required with the ordinary EnKF. The results will also show the advantages of using prior knowledge available from the wells (permeability and porosity measurements) to generate initial realizations. One of the main practical advantages of history matching using the EnKF over traditional optimization based approaches is its low computational effort. The computational cost is dominated by Monte Carlo simulation of the ensemble of models only. Thus, significant computational time saving is possible by running each of the ensemble simulations on independent processors in a parallel mode. Moreover, the method can be easily integrated with any commercial reservoir simulation software.

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