Performance prediction of wells producing from tight microdarcy formations is a daunting task. Complexities of geology (the presence/absence of naturally occurring fractures and contribution from different lithological layers), completion and fracture geometry complexities (multiple transverse and/or longitudinal fractures in long horizontal boreholes), and two-phase flow are impediments to simple performance forecasting.
We demonstrate the use of various analytical and numerical tools to learn about both short- and long-term reservoir behaviors. These tools include (a) traditional decline-curve analysis (Arps formulation), (b) Valko's stretched-exponential method, (c) Ilk et al's power-law exponential method, (d) rate-transient and transient-PI analyses to ascertain the stimulated- reservoir volume, and (e) numerical simulation studies to gain insights into observed flow regimes.
The benefits of collective use of analytical modeling tools in history-matching and forecasting both short- and long-term production performance of tight-oil reservoirs are demonstrated with the use of real and simulated data. Diagnosing natural fractures, quantifying stimulated-reservoir volume, and assessing reliability of future performance predictions, all became feasible by using an ensemble of analytical tools.