Fiber-optic sensing (FOS) technology is gradually becoming a pervasive tool in the monitoring and surveillance toolkit for reservoir engineers. Traditionally, sensing with fiber optic technology in the form of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) or distributed acoustic sensing (DAS), and most recently distributed strain sensing (DSS), distributed flow sensing (DFS) and distributed pressure sensing (DPS) were done with the fiber being permanently clamped either behind the casing or production tubing. Distributed chemical sensing (DCS) is still in the development phase. The emergence of the composite carbon-rod (CCR) system that can be easily deployed in and out of a well, similar to wireline logging, has opened up a vista of possibilities to obtain many FOS measurements in any well without prior fiber-optic installation.
Currently, combinations of distributed FOS data are being used for injection management, well integrity monitoring, well stimulation and production performance optimization, thermal recovery management, etc. Is it possible to integrate many of the distributed FOS measurements in the CCR or a hybrid combination with wireline to obtain multiple measurements with one FOS cable? Each one of FOS has its own use to get certain data, or combination of FOS can be used to make a further interpretation.
This paper reviews the state of the art of the FOS technology and the gamut of current different applications of FOS data in the oil and gas (upstream) industry. We present some results of traditional FOS measurements for well integrity monitoring, assessing production and injection flow profile, cross flow behind casing, etc.
We propose some nontraditional applications of the technology and suggest a few ways through. Which the technology can be deployed for obtaining some key reservoir description and dynamics data for reservoir performance optimization.