In view of tight oil reservoirs with no natural productivity (tight sandstone and carbonate reservoirs with matrix permeability under overburden pressure of no more than 0.2mD (pore permeability less than 2mD)), a nanometer high efficient oil washing agent has been developed by combining nano-drop, high efficient oil washing surfactant and wettability reversal means, which can turn the disadvantage of the small pores and throats into advantage and realize fracturing effect enhancement by making use of the spontaneous imbibition.

For the tight oil reservoir, large scale and high pumping rate multi-stage fracturing in horizontal wells and fracture diversion technique are recommended to smash the reservoirto create a fracture network of natural fractures and artificial fractures for oil and gas flow. The aim is to increase reservoir stimulation volume and the artificial fracture area. Meanwhile, nanometer high efficient oil washing agent is added in the fracturing fluid. By changing rock wettability, the oil-wet interface is turned water-wet, and the capillary force is changed from imbibition resistance to imbibition drive, boosting spontaneous imbibition. Therefore, the biobased solvent and surfactant can work in synergy to separate the oil film from pore and throat surface, realizing displacement of oil by water. Experimental data shows the application the nanometer oil displacement agent can enhance the oil displacement efficiency of core by12%. After fracturing, the well should be shut down for some time. The shut-down time should take the reservoir pressure and temperature, pore structure and connectivity and the imbibition capacity of the fracturing fluid etc into account, and can be worked out by spontaneous imbibition experiment and NMR etc to guide field operation.

This technology has been used 10 well times in tight oil reservoirs in western China, including 3 well times of key exploration well stimulation, and 7 well times of old well repeated fracturing, all the treatments have achieved good effect. Among them, one well worth special note, this well had no production before fracturing, but obtained a high production of 42t a day after fracturing. During the shutdown of well, the fracturing fluid in the artificial fracture network can contact fully with micro-pores in the matrix and displace the oil in them through imbibition to the fracture system, then the oil can flow along the fracture network to the well bottom.

The high efficient imbibition fracturing technology for tight oil reservoir is a revolution in fracturing. With fracturing fluid system and well shutdown different from traditional fracturing, this technology can enhance fracturing effect and more importantly oil recovery. This paper has great guidance and reference significance for engineers and researchers engaged in tight oil development.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.