Recently, experimental and mathematical studies helped researchers to investigate and understand the fundamentals of hysteresis behavior in rock properties. Porosity and permeability are the two of the most important rock properties that are used to characterize the ability to store and transport hydrocarbons in porous media. Hysteresis plays an essential role in porous media and depends on several physical and mechanical properties. In petroleum and geomechanics engineering, understanding hysteresis behavior of porosity and permeability is required for hydrocarbon production plan. Numerous mathematical and experimental studies have been conducted to understand the effect of hysteresis on rock properties, and how they can play a role in improving the productivity of well. Therefore, it is essential to study hysteresis of rock properties, especially porosity and permeability.

This paper presents a comprehensive review and critical analysis of porosity and permeability hysteresis, experimental and mathematical studies. In this paper, an effort to bring together much of this information into one source is highlighted for a better understanding of reservoir performance and description. Moreover, this paper tracks the current development on hysteresis and gives some insight for future studies on the application of hysteresis on rock properties.

This article offers an extensive review and critical analysis on different kinds of hysteresis phenomenon of permeability and porosity such as porosity-permeability vs. net stress hysteresis, and porosity-permeability vs. temperature hysteresis. The review also includes mathematical models that are developed to represent this phenomenon as well as procedures of the experimental works and the devices used in the experimental studies. The finding concludes with highlighting some missing concepts in existing models and experimental procedures for porosity and permeability hysteresis. In the literature, no attempt is made to refer and review the hysteresis despite numerous works have been accomplished. Based on this fact, this article considers one of a kind and it is the first attempt to provide a complete and comprehensive review of porosity and permeability hysteresis.

This research will help in understanding the impact of a hysteresis effect in petroleum engineering, and the production strategies of hydrocarbons specifically in low-permeability reservoirs such as shale, tight sandstone, and tight carbonates.

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