This paper provides a critical review of the integrated reservoir management process implemented to maximize ultimate recovery by maintaining an optimum reservoir pressure distribution in a low transmissibility sector of a giant carbonate reservoir. The peripheral water injection is the main driving mechanism in this reservoir due to the excellent areal transmissibility from the flanks towards the center of the reservoir. However, the study area is limited and characterized by a various degree of low transmissibility due to the degradation in reservoir quality and the presence of a tar mat at the flanks. The main challenge is to provide an adequate pressure support far away from the peripheral injection line and to sustain the required production capacity from the study area. Conventional peripheral water-flooding is insufficient to meet the ever increasing production capacity without an optimized injection set-up consisting of up-dip and down-dip peripheral injectors.

The study demonstrates that cohesive understanding of the flow mechanism, which entails integration of various sources of information, is crucial to achieve successful pressure maintenance and voidage replacement schemes. Consequently, detailed characterization of the tar region was constructed through multiple realizations covering the entire spectrum of uncertainties and impacts on reservoir performance. The injection efficiency over various production scenarios was also carried out using finite-difference and streamline tracing to capture the interaction between producers and injectors. In addition, a coupled subsurface-surface integrated modeling was utilized to identify bottle-necks and evaluate development options.

Production performance and acquired reservoir surveillance data vindicated the implemented practices. Optimum reservoir pressure distribution was observed over the entire study area. Conventional and advanced open-hole log results from strategically placed evaluation wells and time lapses of saturation logs from key monitoring wells over a 5 years period indicated favorable areal and vertical sweep efficiency.

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