Hydraulic Flow Unit (HU) has been used extensively as a technique in permeability modeling and rock typing. Amaefule et al. (1993) introduced for the first time the concept of Reservoir Quality Index (RQI) and Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) by using the Kozeny-Carmen (K-C) model to characterize HU and predict permeability in uncored wells and intervals.
This technique has helped in enhancing the capability to capture the various reservoir flow behavior based on its respective characters. Yet, there are challenges in using the original correlation due to its inherent limitations and over simplified assumptions that prevent accurate HU definitions. This study highlights some of those shortcomings and proposes a modified K-C correlation that enhances the HU characterization.
It is found that the conventional K-C model ignores the inherent nonlinear behavior between the tortuosity and porosity. Hence, handling the tortuosity term in a more representative manner demonstrates a more rigorous correlation that extends the applicability of this powerful technique into more heterogeneous rocks – such as those found in carbonate reservoirs.
This paper presents a reservoir simulation case study that is conducted to validate the applicability of the proposed model as a rock typing technique in a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir in the Middle East region. Relative permeability curves, Leverett J-Function curves and initial water saturation distribution show good agreement within each HU generated using the proposed model.
It is recognized that modified Kozeny-Carmen technique give better matching of initial water saturation model than the conventional technique when compared to open-hole logs which, in turn; adds confidence to initial hydrocarbon-in-place calculations and reservoir behavior predictions. This result will ultimately enhance the prediction of reservoir performance under various scenarios in reservoir simulation.