The steady-state conductivity of a propped fracture is significantly lower than has been reported in most of the data presently being used in fracture design calculations. When laboratory testing incorporates realistic parameters for temperature, and the tests are held for extended time periods, measured conductivity may only be a fraction of the previously reported value. Several authors have addressed this concern, each citing a very limited quantity of data. In some cases, only a few proppants were tested, while other authors addressed only one or two specific temperatures.
This work is based on the results of more than one hundred tests where each stress level was held for extended times to create a complete family of data for a representative number of proppants. The data covers a formation temperature range of 70° to 325°F and a stress range of 2,000 to 13,000 psi for several of the most commonly used proppants. The data were then incorporated into various computerized frac design simulation programs and in reservoir production simulation models.