Satisfactory stimulation of oil and gas bearing formations by "fracture acidizing" is dependent upon development of adequate fracture conductivity in naturally occurring or hydraulically induced fractures. The created fracture conductivity is a result of the action of acid on the exposed fracture face. Some of the kinetic parameters which will influence the resultant conductivity are acid type and strength, reaction temperature, reaction time, and flow regime. These parameters are treatment design variables which can be used to optimize fracture acidizing treatments. Formation characteristics will be equally important, and in many cases, more critical than the kinetic parameters. Some of the formation parameters which will affect the development of fracture conductivity are the mineralogical composition, degree of homogeneity, hardness, and closure stress.

Equipment has been developed to allow realistic laboratory simulation of dynamic etching during the fracture acidizing process. Dynamic etching tests can be used to determine the feasibility of an acid treatment, as well as allowing optimization of the treatment parameters discussed above. Equipment construction allows evaluation of all strengths and forms of acids —e.g. non-gelled, gelled, foamed, emulsified, or chemically retarded — to be evaluated at temperatures up to 375°F, and at closure stress levels up to 12,000 psi. Any type of formation core may be evaluated.

Recent improvements in dynamic etching tests have allowed successful stimulation of difficult to treat formations such as cold dolomites, chalks, formations with low acid solubilities, and uniform carbonates.

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