A one-dimensional numerical model of steam injection was developed and used to simulate experimental steam and hot water injection in the Asphalt Ridge Tar Sands. The model described a three-phase flow system of water, steam and oil with interphase mass transfer of water. The mass and energy balance equations were solved simultaneously by a semi-implicit Sequential Solution method.

The results of the linear numerical simulator showed moderate agreement with the observed results from the steam and hot water injection experiments. The simulator predicted that (1) changes in relative permeability, thermal expansion coefficient of oil and oil viscosity are important factors affecting oil recovery from tar sands; (2) the oil response time is decreased with increasing steam injection rate and quality, and is decreased by reducing steam injection temperature.

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