An analysis is made to illustrate the effectiveness of a new second generation high strength low density proppant as compared to that of sintered bauxite and Ottawa sand in a variety of applications. This is accomplished through the use of a reservoir simulator and a fracture design program. Gas producing formations are simulated which exhibit permeabilities between 0.001 md and 0.1 md and closure stresses up to 9500 psi. In these simulations the second generation proppant and sintered bauxite yield essentially identical production histories. However, the second generation proppant shows far superior performance to Ottawa sand in all applications. Also shown are cases revealing that tail-ins with the second generation proppant can yield a higher return on investment than pumping all high strength proppant.

The simulations reveal the importance of non-Darcy flow and conductivity damage considerations in proppant selection. It is shown that these two factors have much less of an effect on the performance of the second generation proppant than on that of sand. With all of this considered the second generation proppant should prove to have a substantial economic advantage over both sintered bauxite and sand in a variety of applications.

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