An adequate model of pipe friction and fluid hydrostatic head is needed to allow understanding of bottomhole treating pressure trends during pumping. Models currently used by service providers appear to be inadequate, based on observation of field bottomhole treating pressure (BHP) plots. A new model is provided which has been extensively tested for gelled fluids, foams, and slick-water fracs. The model predictions are compared to direct measurements of BHP during typical high-rate treatments in various pipe sizes.

Use of an adequate pipe friction model improves analysis of stimulation treating pressures and allows better decisions to be made regarding on-the-fly design changes and post-job interpretations of created fracture geometry and resulting conductivity. The paper presents a useful model for the estimation of pipe friction, slurry head, and surface treating pressure during hydraulic fracturing treatments.

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