CO2 geo-sequestration has shown potential to mitigate global warming caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this context, CO2 can be immobilized in subsurface formations due to chemical dissolution/precipitation via mineral trapping. However, long-term mineralization involves interdependent complexity of dissolution and precipitation kinetics. In this study, a numerical approach is developed and implemented to analyze the effect of rock type, reservoir temperature, brine salinity on CO2 mineral trapping in compositionally distinct subsurface carbonate reservoirs.

Here, we simulated field-scale models for three different subsurface reservoirs’ compositions (calcite, dolomite, and siderite) to assess the mineral trapping capacity. The base case of a 3D carbonate formation was created. The petrophysical parameters were then upscaled (Sw, Sg, K, and φ) to capture the subsurface conditions. Subsequently, CO2 mineral trapping capacity was computed for different rock compositions mimicking carbonate/brine/CO2 systems. Moreover, the CO2 geo-storage potential was assessed under reservoir temperature, salinity, storage duration, and cumulative injected CO2.

The effect of reservoir mineralogy was analyzed via the amount of CO2 mineralized within 100 years of storage duration following 2 years of injection as a base case. The results revealed significant variation in storage capacity as the mineral type changed. In particular, 100% calcite surface showed the highest CO2 storage capacity compared to both dolomite and siderite. The results could be attributed to the distinction of each mineral in terms of its relative cations dissolve-out rate. Moreover, increasing the reservoir temperature resulted in a monotonic increase in mineralization potential with an insignificant increase in case of siderite. Notably, calcite outperformed both siderite and dolomite as a preferable medium for CO2 mineralization as the injection duration increased over both 100 and 200 years of storage. Additionally, the increase in salinity either significantly decreased the amount of CO2 mineralized in case of calcite and siderite or showed no effect at all in case of dolomite.

This work provides a new insight for underpinning the effects of carbonate reservoir composition on CO2 mineral trapping capacity which has not been investigated much. Overall, the results showed that CO2 trapping in subsurface carbonates immobilized CO2 for a long-term stable geo-storage.

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