The reservoir quality of Karachaganak Carbonates Field results significantly affected by diagenetic processes. In particular, the replacive dolomitization affects porosity, permeability and irreducible water saturation while the precipitation of anhydrite reduces both porosity and permeability. Such impacting processes were therefore analysed and described in the reservoir 3D Model following geologically consistent rules that honour well data.

The field scale diagenetic study was performed following five steps:

  • Core data studies

  • Lithological logs analysis

  • Hydrological processes identification

  • Hydrological processes reactive transport simulations

  • 3D Lithological model building

The dolomite distribution, estimated from the lithological log analysis and cores data, results mainly confined on the flanks of the paleo-high. This distribution was endorsed by the results of 3D field scale reactive transport modelling related to Kohout geothermal convection mechanism acting in the shallow burial of the carbonate paleo-high at each stratigraphic unit. The final lithological 3D Model was built consistently with this hydrological process calibrated with well data used as verification data set in the stochastic simulations.

The anhydrite distribution, estimated from lithological log analysis and cores data, is, generally, present in a few percentage of volume and, mainly, in the upper section of the reservoir (less than 250 m, below the bottom of the overlaying Kungurian evaporites). This anhydrite was related to diffuse downward percolation of the Kungurian brine and, marginally, to dolomitization. The occurrence of higher concentration of anhydrite was also locally observed but generally connected to fracture infill and, sometimes, also in the deeper section of the reservoir. These events were related to brine percolation exploiting a network of syn-depositional fractures, particularly along the flanks of the carbonate bank (Neptunian dykes). Such hydrological processes was endorsed by 2D reactive transport modelling. In fact, the anhydrite infilling fractures may have a significant impact on the reservoir flow path and therefore a workflow for identification of these Neptunian dykes was applied, based on seismic attributes (Continuity and Curvatures) according to the Eni proprietary workflow utilized for the identification of sub-seismic discontinuities (Tfrac-Sibilla).

The so estimated dolomite distribution represents about the 15% of the lithology at field scale but up to the 60% on the flanks of the carbonate build-up, marginal areas investigated by very few wells but impacting on about the 30% of the field total GBV. Accordingly, the petrophysical characteristics of the field flanks result affected, in the 3D Reservoir Model, by the presence of dolomite, i.e. increased porosity, permeability and irreducible water saturation. Moreover, the identification of the sub-seismic discontinuities filled by anhydrite allows a better description of the permeability baffles affecting the 3D model flow paths.

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