Determination of Reservoir Rock Types (RRT) is one of the main parameters in the process of reservoir modelling and simulation. In carbonate reservoirs, the rock typing process is challenging due to multiscale heterogeneity with varying pore types and complex microstructures. The objective in this paper is to select representative samples from a heterogeneous core (350 feet) and establish unique reservoir rock types as well as model permeability along the entire core length based on textural analysis, geological interpretations and petrophysical measurements.
Representative core plugs were selected in a full-diameter heterogeneous core from a carbonate reservoir in the Middle East. The sample selection was based on statistical distribution of porosity and CT-textures in the core. The porosity and textural variations were determined along the core length at 0.5 mm resolution using advanced dual energy X-ray CT imaging. Plug-scale rock types were established based on micro-textures and pore types using thin-section photomicrographs, mercury injection analysis and poroperm measurements. The micro-texture analysis (grainy, muddy, mixed) and pore types were linked to the poroperm data. The micro-texture information was then upscaled to the entire core length using CT-textural analysis.
The porosity and permeability data were fitted into unique trends that were derived from the detailed textural analysis. This process provided the link between the poroperm trends and the different textures in the core enabling permeability and rock types to be upscaled to the entire whole core intervals. Variation of reservoir rock types was studied for each poro-perm trend. The different trends were mainly controlled by the different rock micro-textures whereas the extent of the trend was due to different diagenesis processes (i.e. dissolution, cementation & compaction).
This paper describes a novel approach of combining textures with porosity to model permeability and rock types at the plug scale and core level. A unique dual energy CT technique was used to ensure that all the core property variations were well represented in the plug-scale core analysis measurements.