The quest for cleaner fracturing fluids has led to the development of sand fracturing using liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) as the proppant carrier fluid. CO2 is handled at the surface as a liquid at approximately 200 psi and −30°F. Special blending equipment has been developed to inject proppant directly into the liquid CO2 at these surface conditions. The sand laden liquid CO2 is then pumped by conventional equipment. At stabilized reservoir temperature and pressure, the liquid CO2 vaporizes in a gas well or vaporizes and is partially dissolved in the reservoir oil in an oil well. The greatest potential of liquid CO2 fracturing is the elimination of most of the formation damage normally associated with fracturing fluids and the very rapid clean up and evaluation of the well following the stimulation.

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