The use of microcomputers (and in particular their graphical capabilities) in classroom situations has been found to be a very effective teaching tool. With the main goal in mind to add visual content to the teaching of waterflooding concepts, three programs, using the graphical capabilities of the microcomputer, are developed to aid in this teaching. The first is a graphical demonstration of the layered Stiles' model, the second is the linear Buckley-Leverett model which accounts for the effect of displacement efficiency, and the third is a Higgins and Leighton streamtube model which adds areal sweep effects.
Each program shows the results of the calculations involved in each model both with color graphics and a display of certain parameters. Each program also generates an output file and allows the user to generate a number of graphs of the results. Since the programs are written for a microcomputer, they are easily demonstrated in class and are available for student use outside of the classroom.
This author has found over the years that using microcomputers, and especially their graphical capabilities, in the classroom has enhanced the learning process of undergraduate students. The programs that have been written are designed to teach or enforce a particular engineering concept. They do this most strongly through their graphical presentation of the results.
In this paper, three programs that have been written for teaching waterflooding concepts will be presented. They are all based on previously developed theories but have been coded such that maximum graphics! output can be displayed during their operation. No attempt is made in this paper to describe the details of each model. While more complicated and accurate models may be available, the ones chosen here most easily allow the demonstration of the important waterflooding concepts while maintaining reasonable accuracy. Details on each program will be discussed in individual sections of this paper.
The first program utilizes the Stiles' model to compute the effect of vertical stratification in a linear waterflood. The second introduces the student to the linear Buckley-Leverett theory. This program allows one to examine the effect of various parameters on displacement efficiency. The third computer program is an implementation of the Higgins and Leighton streamtube model. In this program, he concept of sweep efficiency (in conjunction with displacement efficiency) is introduced and examined.
Before discussing each program, a review of three definitions is in order. The first is displacement efficiency which measures the effectiveness of the water to displace the oil that it contacts. It is calculated with equation (.1).
Oil Recovered in Swept Zone E D =
s w s wi = (i.-S wi) - Sor
where Sw = Average Water Saturation in the Swept Zone Swi = Initial water saturation sor = Residual oil saturation