Conformance control is any action taken to improve the injection or production profile of a well. It encompasses procedures that enhance recovery efficiency, improve wellbore/casing integrity, and satisfy environmental regulations. Unwanted fluid production in oil- and gas-producing wells is a limiting factor that controls the productive life of a well. The cost of produced water disposal in an environmentally non-threatening fashion may be a major concern for many producers. In addition, control of excess water and gas production improves profitability by allowing additional oil to be produced.

Application of water control technology assists to minimize water production and maintain the oil flow rate of a well. Reservoir engineering and well testing play essential roles in characterizing and detecting the problems associated with producing formations and wells.

This paper starts with problem identification in both producing and injection wells. It then covers the behavior and control of several types of reservoirs with different drive mechanisms. Applications of reservoir simulation and well testing in the control of water and gas coning, determination of the amount and the best appropriate treatment application, effect of formation layering, control of relative permeability to water, application of permeability blocking agents, water channeling, secondary recovery, viscous fingering, and polymer flooding are detailed in this paper. In addition several techniques to evaluate the overall success of a conformance control procedure are presented.

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