SPE Members

Abstract

Consolidated reservoir formations are defined here as those formations of significant thickness having acoustic impedance (density-velocity product) which is consistently greater than or equal to that of similarly aged, normally pressured shales. For such formations, porosity and hydrocarbon presence can be effectively imaged via seismic velocity changes over a presence can be effectively imaged via seismic velocity changes over a substantial range of depths (to 16,000-plus feet). Here we shall note consolidated sand and carbonate reservoirs from East Texas, the North Sea and Oklahoma. Plays of current interest encompassing such reservoirs would included the Austin Chalk, Alaskan formations, Niobrara and Frio-Vicksburg, as well as others. Starting with a brief summary of requirements for definitive seismic imaging of consolidated reservoirs we move on to the technology for interpreting, calibrating, and using such displays. The effectiveness of spatially dense seismic-velocity measurements and color inversion sections scaled in velocity is clearly demonstrated by the variety of successful examples reviewed. These approaches and the positive results obtained suggest that, in the future, seismic techniques will be even more definitive in addressing consolidated reservoirs for both exploration and production applications.

Introduction

Our approach to hydrocarbon exploration and reservoir definition rests principally on sound basic geology and refined seismic methods. There are principally on sound basic geology and refined seismic methods. There are two themes which are applied in parallel to the seismic data. Significantly improved and definitive seismic imaging constitutes one of these directions. Use of a unified framework, an organized sequence of high technology procedures, to identify and qualify key anomalies and subsurface characteristics is the second theme.

Enhanced Seismic Imaging and Display

It was recognized more than 10 years ago that as much as 80% of the stratigraphic information contained in seismic data presented in conventional black and white displays was lost due to inappropriate processing and limitations in visual dynamic range (see references). processing and limitations in visual dynamic range (see references). P. 269

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.