The Willard Unit is located in the Wasson (San Andres) Field in Yoakum County, Texas. The reservoir is a layered dolomite with an average porosity of 8.5 percent and average permeability porosity of 8.5 percent and average permeability of 1.5 md. Secondary recovery by waterflooding has been in progress since 1965. Although secondary operations have been quite successful in the Willard Unit, a substantial amount of oil will be unrecoverable by waterflooding. CO2 miscible displacement project was conducted in the unit to investigate the applicability of this process for full scale improved oil recovery.

The project consisted of two separate field tests to study the various operational and reservoir aspects of the CO2 miscible process. The first of these consisted of eight adjacent CO2 injection wells on regular waterflood spacing. Since this was the first effort to conduct a CO2 miscible flood in this unit, this test was called Phase I. Water and CO2 were injected alternately Phase I. Water and CO2 were injected alternately in Phase I from November, 1972, to February 1975. This area was planned to provide insight into the extent of reservoir sweep problems that might occur in a regular size pattern CO2 flood. It would also provide an opportunity to investigate control measures if these problems arose. Additionally, information would be obtained on injection performance and operational procedures that could be used in planning a unit-wide flood. The second test was located and operated separately from Phase I and was called the Pilot. It consisted of four wells: an injector, logging observation well, pressure observation and sampling well, and pressure core well, all on close spacing. The Pilot was designed to allow a more detailed investigation of the reservoir flow behavior of CO2 and water and to determine the reduction in waterflood residual oil levels due to CO2 injection.

Phase I injection performance was good. The reservoir pressure was maintained above the minimum required for miscible displacement. Cumulative CO2 injection was 3.8 BCF of CO2, or 4.4% of the hydrocarbon pore volume.

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