Current grouting technology is reviewed emphasizing some of the latest developments. Main topics covered are grouting materials, grouting methods, grout monitoring techniques, recent grouting related improvements, and structure flotation equipment.

Grouting materials to promote faster and higher strengths, help prevent self-desiccation, and offer increased expansions are discussed. Grouts are classified according to use and typical examples are given.

A new type of lightweight admixture has been developed which can be used to formulate low density (12.5 lb/gal, 1.5kg/dm3) grouts with final strength approaching that of normal (15.6 lb/gal, 1.87 kg/ dm3) density grout. Because of the vastly improved strength of this grout as compared to other low density grout, the use of such low density grouts to facilitate placement procedures warrants reevaluation.

Discussion of grouting methods covers five different techniques and their application. Several of these methods involve the use of new generation high pressure packers and flow control valves. With this new equipment, packer inflation/ grouting manifolds can be devised which enable multiple packer inflation through a single line and grout placement into multiple ports through a single line.

Improved leg plugs, conductor pipe plugs, and j-tube plugs have made structure flotation a simpler, more trouble-free operation. The plugs offer unprecedented economy and dependability. The leg plugs and conductor pipe plugs are mechanically set, retrievable, and reusable.

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