Traditional US land hydrocarbon bearing shale formations are presently being drilled & produced via horizontal wells. These horizontal wells consist of numerous selectively shot stages containing as many as 15 stages spread out across 2000 ft to 5000 ft interval.
These completions have been hydraulically fractured with water or slick water & require a flowback period of the injected water prior to the wells being kicked off with gas production. Since these types of formations are far from being homogeneous, the horizontal laterals can intersect existing natural fractures or faults in the formation or an aggressive hydraulic frac could induce fractures into existing natural fractures or faults.
When producing horizontal wells the lateral section draw down of the formation water has the ability to enter the wellbore from these faults or fractures causing the well's gas production performance to drop & eventually die off.
This paper will showcase US land horizontal well Production Logging deployment techniques using coiled tubing or well tractor examples & measurement techniques by imaging wellbore liquid / gas holdup, fluid velocity & thermal changes across the lateral. These techniques are successfully being used on US land horizontal wells in shale gas plays, whereby these case histories located inflowing gas and water entries across the lateral section.
The emerging trend of drilling and completing long horizontal laterals in unconventional shale gas formations leads to novel deployment techniques and measurements in order to efficiently measure data across these producing lateral sections.