Advancements in pore-scale and core-scale studies have provided an improved understanding of the micro- and macro-porosity nature of carbonate rocks and how the two systems interact. The interaction of the two systems in the presence of a third (fracture) and fourth component (vugs) has not been fully investigated in the industry. This paper demonstrates applicability and some limitations of permeability conditioning practices in dual-porosity dual-permeability (DPDP) systems. In addition, this work demonstrates how the permeability conditioning process can be used as a tool for dynamic classification and calibration of extreme permeability (super-k) intervals in dual-permeability systems.

A highly scalable parallel DPDP finite difference simulator is used to: Firstly, demonstrate the permeability conditioning process and how it impacts reservoir dynamics. Secondly, present cases where flowmeter (PLT) responses show a limitation in characterizing super-k intervals and its impact. Thirdly, demonstrate the role of enhancement factor in representing flood front movement for multiple super-k dominated reservoir realizations constrained by flowmeter and pressure transient permeability-thickness controls.

The results of this work expands on the representation of super-k intervals in dual-permeability systems in three main areas. Firstly, the decision to explicitly model super-k intervals as a fractured media or to implicitly model these features as a matrix permeability enhancement should be evaluated with use of enhancement factor combined with water breakthrough trends observed in the field. Secondly, the use of PLT responses to characterize super-k intervals should be made after careful evaluation of their responses before and after any well intervention. This step is crucial for proper permeability conditioning and in capturing reservoir dynamics of masked high flow intervals, i.e., new flow dominating features that appear only after the original super-k intervals have been plugged. Thirdly, as part of the integration of pressure transient results into a DPDP finite difference model, special consideration is needed for wells with a non-intersecting conductive fracture signature due to a limitation in the Peaceman formulation for DPDP reservoirs, which only considers cells intersecting the well for productivity index and PLT response calculations.

In summary, this paper provides guidance for geologists and reservoir engineers, through use of a permeability conditioning process, to dynamically classify and calibrate fractured/super-k intervals during the process of constructing full-field dual-porosity dual-permeability reservoir simulation models.

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