Colloidal Dispersion Gels (CDG's) have been successfully tested in Argentina, China, USA, and recently in Colombia. However, questions remain whether CDG's can be injected in large volumes and propagate deep into the formation without reducing injectivity and also improve sweep efficiency.

This paper summarizes 31 implemented and ongoing CDG projects in Argentina, Colombia and the U.S. since 2005. Project summary review includes main reservoir properties, operating conditions, pore volume of chemical injected, general project performance, and especially, a detailed analysis of injection logs addressing the injectivity of CDG. Additionally, a general approach for history matching CDG floods is described.

CDG injection volumes in projects reviewed vary from a few thousand barrels to hundreds of thousands of barrels. Projects evaluated did not show injectivity reduction even after more than 600,000 barrels injected in one well. Polymer concentration and polymer: crosslinker ratios ranged from 250 to 1,200 ppm and 20:1 to 80:1, respectively. Aluminum citrate is the most common crosslinker used in field projects. However, chromium triacetate has been used in high salinity and hardness conditions. Key variables to sustain the injection of large volumes of CDG below maximum operating pressure are polymer: crosslinker ratios, polymer concentration, and injection rates to a lesser extent. CDG projects have evolved from small to large treatment volumes showing a positive impact on oil recoveries. Despite large volumes of CDG injected production of polymer in offset producers has rarely been detected. Wellhead pressure response, CDG viscosity, and adsorption/retention (RRF) represents the most important variables needed to match CDG floods.

This study provides the status of the technology and field evidence that CDG's can be injected in large volumes and can propagate into the reservoir without injectivity constraints. This review will also provide guidance to successfully design and evaluate CDG pilot projects. Lessons learned from operating and modeling CDG projects will also be presented.

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