It is useful to confidently know what type of fluid is coming into the wellbore from each specific perforation and to accurately establish the depth associated with that fluid entry. The more confidence you are able to assign to your knowledge of the fluid type entering a specific perforation, the more valuable that information is to the engineer trying to maximize oil or gas production and trying to minimize water production. Knowing if the fluid entering a specific perforation is gas, oil, or water and establishing the exact depth of that perforation relative to other downhole equipment is possible using downhole video technology.
After a brief overview of the development and current state of the art of downhole video technology, this paper presents some examples of perforation-specific fluid characterization. These examples include analysis of flow patterns at specific perforations actually observed and the factors that contribute to those patterns. Examples include videos of oil, gas, and water entry at various depths, pressures, temperatures, watercut percentages, inclination angles, and tubular sizes.