Carbonate reservoirs are inherently heterogeneous and challenging to secondary and tertiary recovery, due to:

  1. the depositional environment;

  2. the diagenesis that modified the sediment/rock;

  3. the nature of the enclosing trap; and

  4. the properties of the fluids and gases that filled the reservoir.

Utilizing the above criteria when characterizing and managing carbonate reservoirs, from discovery to abandonment. gives an operating company opportunities to recover additional mobile oil (Fig. 1).

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