The Raageshwari Deep Gas Field in the western India, operated by Cairn India Limited, is a tight gas laminated reservoir (~0.1mD) with gross pay of ~700metres having numerous but small packets of good porosities and high gas saturations.
This paper describes the holistic approach used to cover the maximum net pay of the laminated volcanic rock using the limited entry technique of fracturing with limited number of frac stages. It also summarizes how the conventional temperature logging practice post injection tests helped cover the net pay, improve and verify the limited entry technique, decide the number of frac stages and calibrate frac model. Brief discussion also includes the results of production logging used to access the reservoir response to stimulation.
The fracturing jobs were conducted through 3-1/2″ Monobore completion with target depths at ~3400m TVDSS. The challenge in developing a multilayered thick tight volcanic gas reservoir using the conventional single interval per stage perforating is that it would require more than 10 independent stages to effectively cover the available net pay which was deemed to be uneconomic.
Limited entry Technique was used to combine number of sand packages in a single frac stage with high potential sands selected based on the reservoir and completion quality. Though fracturing simulators indicated theoretically that all of the perforation clusters which had different stresses and petro-physical properties, received pad and slurry to create a productive fracture, but verification was required.
The effectiveness of the diversion was verified using a combination of Step rate/Step down tests, post mini frac/frac temperature surveys, post treatment pressure matching and time lapsed production logging.
Limited Entry Technique has proved to be a cost effective method of increasing net pay coverage and EUR per well with minimum number of frac stages. Post SRT/mini frac/frac temperature surveys proved to be a very reliable, efficient and cost effective method for determining which perforations were taking fluid and the fracture heights which were generated. The heights obtained from the temperature surveys along with the pressure data/DFITs, were used to calibrate the hydraulic fracturing simulator. Also the production logging is showing the contribution form the all the targeted sands.
The application of limited entry technique, its verification using conventional temperature surveys and production loggings and the various operational and engineering learning acquired during planning to execution phase is an innovative and integrated approach in itself to exploit multilayered deep gas volcanic reservoir. Also pumping schedule modification like conducting step rate/down test in the pad sage or multiple step down tests in the same frac job were conducted while perforating individual interval/cluster