Among the many challenges faced in production and refining of crude oil, corrosion stands out due to its potential impact and associated economic and safety concerns. The primary cause of corrosion is the presence of mineral acids such as hydrogen chloride formed by hydrolysis of salts present in crude oil. Currently, significant research efforts have been devoted to design and develop new materials and procedures to reduce the water content and neutralize the acids in crude. These efforts have resulted in development of new corrosion-proof materials for coating in pipelines, chemical reagents and surface active substances for neutralization of acids as well as breaking of emulsions. Anionic, cationic and non-ionic surface active reagents are reported to be effective in demulsification application. Particularly the amphiphilic block copolymers, such as polyetyleneoxide-block-polypropylene oxide are used globally for the process of demulsification. Various organic amines are used in the overheads of atmospheric columns for neutralization of acids. Numerous nitrogenated compounds are also used as corrosion inhibitors in different refining operations. HERCULES-30617, KEMLIX-1123X and DEOL-4241 are some of commercial names used for the purpose of corrosion inhibition.
Hence we are deeply motivated to review all the recent research progresses that will provide us the impetuous to analyze the existing shortcomings and design and develop new materials with possible applications in above mentioned areas.