This paper shows how total skin factors can be calculated in wells which are perforated, damaged, partially completed and deviated. Horizontal wells and the effect of material within the wellbore radius (eg open hole gravel packs) can also be evaluated. Results are provided for both isotropic formations and those with a different horizontal and vertical permeability.

The theory presented extends work published by others for particular cases. These calculations are needed to design cost-effective completions.

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