The transport of fine particles in formations has been recognized as the major cause of formation damage. In this study, a two-phase, multi-species formation damage model was developed. The model allows for filter cake formation on the sand face, particle mobilization and retention in pore spaces, particle transfer at fluid-fluid interface, and porosity and permeability alteration. The effects of non-Darcy flow, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and wettability of fine particles and pore surfaces on two-phase flow formation damage were considered. A one-dimensional numerical simulator was constructed based on the model.

The model was validated using published laboratory data. Parameters involving the formation damage model were also determined using the laboratory data. With respect to field applications, the extent and degree of formation damage around the wellbore and the associated skin factor were predicted by implementing the model in radial flow. This study serves to enhance the understanding of formation damage due to particulate processes. This model is a useful tool for analyzing formation damage in laboratory core tests and simulate and predict formation damage in field operations.

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