The use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis to study seawater biofilms has contributed to acquiring a thorough understanding of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth within deposits. The micro-environment created within fouling films is much more aggressive to metal than natural corrodents of fluids. The outcome of these findings has been the creation of a new generation of antibiofoulants (ABF's) and biofilm preventives. These products exhibit excellent removal of deposits, excellent biocidal properties on biofouled surfaces and prevention of biofouling-induced corrosion. By proper surface pre-conditioning, the minimum cidal concentration (MX) required to kill SRB's within standard biofilms has been decreased from 70–80 ppm to 10–20 ppm. Thereby, biocidal properties similar to those of acrolein have been obtained.

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