The effects of H2S on system integrity, sulphide scaling potential and health and safety in oil and gas production is well recognized and understood. However, as part of a wider study on pH dependent scale predictions, the authors have identified an additional challenge associated with the presence and/or development of H2S in reservoirs containing carbonates: higher H2S concentration reflects in higher calcium carbonate scaling potential. The intention of this work is to demonstrate the impact of H2S using a real field case scenario and investigate how the variability in water cut, aqueous phase composition, CO2 and H2S concentration can impact the well carbonate scaling potential and ultimately its productivity.

To model pH dependent scales correctly, it is necessary to integrate PVT calculations with the aqueous phase thermodynamic mineral scaling calculations. This has been extensively discussed in previous publications by the authors. For this work, a commercial integrated PVT and scale prediction software package was used to determine the scale prediction profile from reservoir to the first stage of topside separation. In addition, to investigate the impact of PVT on the final results, a second PVT software employing a different equation of state (EOS) is used and the results obtained from this calculations are coupled with the same aqueous phase model using the Heriot-Watt scale prediction workflow.

The well selected for this study shows productivity issues as well as signs of presence of calcium carbonate scale. However, scale prediction calculations carried out in the past did not show any potential for carbonate scale formation at the given conditions. After rigorously accounting for variations in water cut over time, as well as for increased H2S due to reservoir souring, our work clearly shows a correlation between a gradual loss of well productivity and carbonate scaling potential.

This work clearly demonstrates the impact of H2S on calcium carbonate scaling potential and highlights the importance of correctly modelling CO2 and H2S partitioning in gas/oil/water at the different stages of production, from reservoir to topside separation. Following this study, it has also been possible to offer specific well treatment and testing recommendations to verify the results and try to obtain improvements in production efficiency.

Moreover, the application of our approach to a real field scenario shows how some field findings associated with carbonate scale problems can be explained only by correctly modelling the full three phase system (oil, gas and water). Some aspects of this approach are frequently overlooked and not linked correctly to carbonate scale formation.

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