Deposition of mineral scales is the root cause of many production problems in oil and gas operations. These scale deposits have resulted in formation damage, production losses, significant rate and pressure reductions, and equipment failure due to corrosion issues. The most commonly encountered mineral scales in the oilfield are carbonates and sulfate-based calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, and strontium sulfate scales. However, a more unusual form of these mineral scales— zinc sulfide—has recently been reported.
This paper focuses on the systematic study of a zinc sulfide scale and the operation that removed it from a well in the Gulf of Mexico. Identifying the scale form and composition, and the factors affecting its dissolution resulted in a treatment that successfully removed the scale, thereby enhancing gas production from the well.
This scale was identified as wurtzite, a form of zinc sulfide scale. Extensive laboratory testing considered acid solubility and other scale-removal issues at downhole temperature and pressure conditions, as compared to the theoretical solubility of zinc sulfide in HCl acid. The study also determined that other factors may affect the real-world dissolution efficiency of the acid: pressure changes, hydrogen sulfide scavenger concentration and type, the ratio of acid volume to scale weight, pre-treatment oxidizer use, and pH values that prevent re-precipitation of dissolved scale.
The paper will describe the pre-job testing process and a field case history of a coiled tubing acid scale treatment that effectively removed the zinc sulfide scale from tubulars and the formation. Data will be presented showing the composition of the acid-flowback samples as well as the treatment and production charts.