Nanotechnology has become the buzz word of the decade! The precise manipulation and control of matter at dimensions of (1-100) nanometers have revolutionized many industries including the Oil and Gas industry. Its broad impact on more than one discipline is making it of increasing interest to concerned parties.

The Nanotechnology applications have pierced through different Petroleum disciplines from Exploration, to Reservoir, Drilling, Completion, Production and Processing & Refinery. For instance, Nano-sensors have been developed rapidly to enhance the resolution of the subsurface imaging leading to advanced field characterization techniques. Nanotechnology also strikes the stage of production enormously to enhance the oil recovery via molecular modification and manipulate the interfacial characteristics. Moreover, in a very similar fashion, it provides novel approaches to improved post production processes.

Only very few publications were able to report the latest accomplishments in different Petroleum Engineering domains. This paper provides an overview of the latest Nano-technological solutions in the O&G industry and covers the recent research developments that have been carried out around the world and paves the way for many researchers and organizations who are interested in the integration of these technological advancements, to discover the challenges and the revolution that Nanotechnology is about to bring to O&G Industry in Egypt.

Egypt's domestic demand for oil is increasing rapidly. Oil consumption has grown by more than 30% in the past ten years. Also, the hydrocarbon reserves in Egypt have witnessed an average increase of 5%/year over the past seven years, while the average recovery factor is still stuck at the 35%. Nanotechnology holds the key solution to this local production challenge as it helps increase the recovered Oil and decrease the cost of production by eliminating problems that occur throughout the field development operations.

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