After recent discoveries of large oil reserves in pre-salt areas of Brazil, the government has proposed a change in the current fiscal regime from Royalty & Tax to Production Sharing Contracts. The government wishes to implement the production sharing system to earn higher revenues, believing that this is the best policy to improve State gains to be transferred to society. In this new environment and focusing on the oil production strategy selection process, it is required to know if: 1) the production strategies are the same or different for both models 2) the same technical-economic indicators are suitable to be used to select the optimal production strategy in both systems. Nowadays, there is no clear convergence of points of view to answer these issues, although some debates among professionals and government are taking place. The aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the optimum exploitation strategy for both fiscal models, regarding number of injection and production wells and, their allocation in the reservoir. This objective is accomplished following a production-strategy optimization that combines manual and automatic procedures to maximize the company NPV accounting for the assumption of a known behavior of oil prices. Sensitivity analyses of government take to oil price and cost recovery limits are carried out. The results show that the choice of the optimal-production strategy to maximize NPV depends on the fiscal regime. In addition, the government take is reduced with the increase of oil prices. For any oil price, the government take in the production sharing contract system is higher than in R&T, so that it is one of the reasons why it is more interesting from the government's point of view. Besides, the increase of cost recovery limit implies in a reduction of the government take up to a stable value.

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