Like other industrial revolutions, the fourth industrial revolution requires an entire change like work. It gives rise to the emergence of technologies like cyber-physical systems, the internet of things, cloud computing, additive manufacturing, big data analytics, and smart production. The main goals of Industry 4.0 technologies belie in flexibility in operations, end-to-end operational maintenance, and the internal upgrading of production systems intelligently. This paper study and identifies Industry 4.0 implementation challenges in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry. Accordingly, this paper analyses the identified challenges using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) based on the experts’ opinions. Based on the interpretive structural modeling outcome, which is used to determine the hierarchy of the implementation challenges, the absence of a skilled workforce (people), open collaboration, and big data management and security, and technology interaction and integration emerged as the main Industry 4.0 implementation challenges in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. Next is insufficient funds. Finally, the government policy and blueprint are the least among the six identified implementation challenges. In conclusion, this paper can serve as a tool for researchers, industry leaders, stakeholders, and professionals in the oil and gas industry to increase their awareness of Industry 4.0 implementation challenges.

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